Effective Information Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

{SCA} Hyperglycemia is when your blood glucose is too high; it is the opposite of hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia needs to be treated immediately as it is a major cause of complications among people with diabetes.

Hyperglycemia happens when there is no insulin in the blood, not enough insulin in the blood, or the insulin in the blood is not working properly.

The main reason for hyperglycemia for a patient who is being treated for diabetes type 1 is that he/she has not given himself enough insulin. For a type 2 diabetic it could be the same reason, but also his/her insulin is less effective than it should be.

For a patient with diabetes, overeating can bring on hyperglycemia, as can too little exercise on a given day. Mental stress can also bring it on. Remember that your body’s supply of insulin is determined by how much you give yourself, and when. For a person who does not have diabetes his/her body will respond automatically with appropriate quantities of insulin.

Symptoms of hyperglycemia

  • High blood glucose
  • High levels of sugar in the urine
  • Very hungry, hungry often (polyphagia)
  • Excessive thirst, frequent thirst (polydipsia)
  • Excessive and frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Blurred vision – Weight loss
  • Wounds and cuts heal poorly
  • Dry mouth
  • Cardiac arrhythmia
  • Deep and rapid breathing (kussmaul hyperventilation)
  • Impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  • Itchy and/or dry skin
  • Tiredness
  • Stupor
  • Coma

Good diabetes management is crucial

Your doctor will tell you what your glucose levels should be and how often you should check it. If you stick to good diabetes management practices your chances of experiencing hyperglycemia are significantly reduced.


As soon as you detect hyperglycemia, treat it immediately. People who experience hyperglycemia and do not treat it run a significantly high risk of going into diabetic coma (ketoacidosis).

Ketoacidosis happens when there is not enough insulin in your blood. Remember that without the insulin your cells cannot get the vital fuel (energy) they need. Your body starts breaking down fats to get its energy. This process of breaking down fats produces ketones – waste products. Large amounts of ketones are bad for you.

Excess ketones in your blood will result in frequent urination as your body tries to eliminate it. However, it eventually becomes a losing battle, with the build up of ketones happening faster than their elimination through urination.

Symptoms of ketoacidosis are:

  • your breath smells fruity
  • nausea and sometimes vomiting
  • your mouth is extremely dry
  • you are short of breath

Treating hyperglycemia

The American Diabetes Association says exercising can help lower blood glucose levels. If your blood glucose is above 240mg/dl. Check your urine for ketones and do not exercise if there are ketones present as this will raise your blood glucose levels even more!

Reducing your food intake will also help lower your blood glucose. It is important that you stick to your meal plan, which should be worked out with a dietitian or health care professional.

Ask your doctor for the best way to lower blood glucose levels.

If none of the measures mentioned above manages to lower your blood glucose it is possible that your medication may have to be re-scheduled. Your insulin and medication doses may need to be altered, as might their timing (when you have them).

Remember that good diabetes management helps reduce the incidence of hyperglycemia. Learn to detect hyperglycemia quickly so that you can treat it early on.